Satchel Paige

By Lontay Greene


fameJust because you are the greatest to ever do something, doesn’t mean that you will always have the chance to show everyone that you are the greatest to ever do it. Leroy Robert “Satchel” Paige became the oldest rookie of his time when he entered the Major League Baseball team named the Cleveland Indians in the year of 1948. His late entrance into the Major Leagues was never a question of talent, but as halted by the breaking of the color barrier that refused to allow men of color to enter the Major Leagues. Well before he ever stepped foot on an MLB mound, he was already regarded as one of the best pitchers of all time amongst his experience in the Negro Leagues. He played for a variety of teams in the Negro leagues including his most famous landing spots being the Birmingham Black Barons, the Pittsburgh Crawfords, and the Kansas City Monarchs. Being from Mobile Alabama, it is astonishing that he would ever have the opportunity to travel abroad to so many different places playing baseball that stem much further than the few listed. He had stints in a myriad of places that even stretched overseas at times, and always going wherever the salary would be better suited.

baseballHe was a nomad of an individual but a model of consistent excellence inside atop of the pitcher’s mound. His highlights of his career would include brandishing a sixty-four-inning scoreless streak, twenty-one consecutive wins, and an unheard of record of thirty-one wins and only four losses. He was an otherworldly level ballplayer that stretched his career until he was practically half a century old, that was unofficially claimed after his official documentation was lost earlier in his life. Leroy Robert Satchel Paige does not have the name power or notoriety as players such as Willie Mays and Jackie Robinson when you are discussing the color divide in baseball but unarguable deserves to be in that conversation. Paige was only the seventh African American player to enter the Major Leagues after Jackie Robinson led the charge, but had little time leaving his mark.

He “only” pitched a sub 2.5 ERA(earned run average) at the prime age of forty-two years of age while ,absurdly, being considered an option for winning Rookie of the Year after having already played for a few decades in the Negro Leagues. His numbers in the Negro Leagues alone should put him amongst the shrine of greats in the baseball history books, along with his stellar performance at the tail end of his career to show his prowess even when he was well past his prime. In 1971, just eleven years before his death, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame to become the first African American pitcher to do so.

Everyone that is great do not always live to experience their greatness being honored, but even though he was not as appreciated as much during his career he ultimately got to see the fruits of his labor gain respect, notoriety and ultimately blossom.


REARC Conference

By Tori Peck

rearc papers
Papers at REARC

Earlier this month I attended the academic conference called REARC at Colonial Williamsburg, VA. It was about Reconstructive and experimental archaeology. It was a two day conference consisting of two parts. Friday was the formal lecture day where presenters gave presentations on the work they have been doing in the experimental/reconstructive archeological field. Saturday was a more hands on day. Different people from the conference set up tables and events all around Colonial Williamsburg where they had different activities everyone could be involved with.


rearc brick kiln
Williamsburg Brick Kiln

I attended this conference with a group of about 10 students who were apart of the Coastal Carolina Anthropology and Geography club. Along with us were two Coastal Carolina Professors Dr. Dillian and Dr. Clary. We arrived at the hotel on Thursday night and then walked around Colonial Williamsburg at night. We got to see the firing of bricks in the kiln and walk through a cemetery.


rearc fibers
Students with their fiber activity results

The formal days were split up. We would hear about three or four presenters speak and then there would be time for questions once everyone in that group was done. Breaks were placed in-between the presenters so attendees could chat with each other and grab food. We had three from our group present on Friday. Dr. Dillian presented twice, once by herself and again with her student Sydney and Dr. Clary presented work showing the connection between Public History and Archeology. People from all different backgrounds presented on Friday. There were undergrads, grad students, professors, elementary and high school teachers, and anthropologist. Topics presented ranged from artifact conservation to mummification methods. After all the presentations were done the attendees were free to go.


Tori and her atlatl bullseye!

Saturday was my favorite day of the conference. Our group met up early and headed over to Colonial Williamsburg. The first thing to happen when we got there is we saw some oxen pulling a cart, there were staff from Williamsburg in costumes talking to us and in the cart was a dog named Liberty that we got the chance to pet. We headed over to some of the tables run by REARC. They first activity we did was watching the process of tanning hide and created twine out of fibrous plant material. After that headed over to the Atlatl throwing competition. Here we were given the chance to practice using many different types of Atlatls and spears. After getting the chance to practice there was competition held to see who could get the highest combined score with 5 throws. I had gotten one very good shot that was almost a bullseye and Cooper who is also a part of the CCU Anthropology and Geography club got first place and won a trophy. We spent the rest of the time exploring Colonial Williamsburg.

rearc atlatl compI immensely enjoyed my time at REARC. It was the first conference I have ever attended and I was unsure of what to expect. I got the chance meet and talk with many other students and people who had similar interest in Archeology as I do and I learned a lot from my time at REARC. I look forward to attending the conference again next year and to possibly present a paper.

Special thanks to Dr. Clary for providing me with the pictures she took at REARC

Why Oral History is Important

By Morissa J Robinson

I recently worked on a project in one of my history classes that required us to dig up any information we could find on a person assigned to us and write up a biography entry. Easy, right? Well it wasn’t that simple. Some of us had first and last names to go on and nothing else. Do you know how many Elizabeth Jones’ there are out there? Not to mention if the name you are assigned simply says Mrs. John Jones. It’s a bit tricky to say the least. Fortunately, I was able to locate my person, but the lack of information I found was frustrating. I did not find much beyond the basic info: parents, spouse, children and less than a handful of events attended. How was I suppose to write a biography entry with that? Here is a person who is believed to have played a significant role in Women’s Suffrage, and no one even knows it. No one knows anything about her. It was all very sad to me.

It got me to thinking about my grandparents, whom have all been gone for several years now. Exactly how much do I know about their lives? I remember going thru some photos shortly after my grandfather passed away. Most were family photos, school pictures and pictures of the old farm they used to live on. There was one that grabbed my attention. A young man, who you could definitely tell was grandpa, wearing what appeared to be khaki pants and a white T-shirt. He had is arm around a distinctly Asian looking woman standing out side of a small hut with a thatched roof. All that was written on the back was Korea 1951. I showed it to my older cousins, they knew nothing about it. I took it to my Aunt, she said she had never seen it before. We knew grandpa had served in Korea, but who was this woman? We searched the photo for clues, he was wearing a wedding band. But wait! Grandma and Grandpa weren’t married until 1953, had he been married to this other woman before he married grandma? No one in the family knew anything, or if they did they weren’t telling.

My point is, there are so many things I wish I knew about them, about there lives. What were their parents like? Where did they grow up? First job? First kiss? What was the war like? What were their dreams? Who was that woman!? There is so much that I could have learned from them, so much that I could have been able to share with my children so that they could have had the chance to know their great-grandparents. Unfortunately, it is too late for me, but it may not be too late for you.

That’s where oral history comes in. Sit down with your grandparents,  your parents, or anyone else that may have an interesting story to tell. Have a conversation, ask questions, really listen to them and soak it all in. Record it (ask permission first), write it all down, cherish it, keep it safe and share it with other family members. I wish I had. All I have left are the memories and as I get older, even those are fading.

Photo by Barbara Nicholson

NC Sports Hall of Fame

By Dylan Livingston

Founded in 1962, the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame, placed in the North Carolina Museum of History, has impressed and entertained North Carolina residents and travelers alike. The NC Hall of Fame is chalk full of amazing athletes and coaches detailing what they did for their school, their team and most importantly, their state. I traveled there for the first time with my 4th grade elementary school class to cap off a really fun quarter where we detailed North Carolina history while also talking about its heroes in the sports world. Some of North Carolina’s most famous athletes include: Michael Jordan (considered professional basketball’s best player ever), Mia Hamm (one of United State soccer’s most decorated olympians), and Richard Petty who won 200 competitive races in the sport of NASCAR.

This section of the NC Museum of History boasts many trophies and outlines some of the most famous nation-wide places that countless professional events have taken place in. Some of these places include the Pinehurst Resort in Pinehurst, NC (golf) and the Charlotte Motor Speedway (NASCAR).

Although I have not been back to the NC Sports Hall of Fame in about five years, I can remember how nicely presented all of the material was compared to another hall of fame I have been to. This summer I went to Hockeytown Cafe in Detroit, Michigan which also has a hall of fame, specific to hockey, that was not portrayed in such a glowing manner compared to the NC hall of fame. The Hockeytown Cafe lacked good exhibit labels and didn’t do the players on view very much justice. In comparison, the NC hall of fame does a great job incorporating “flow” by giving its sports fanatics an easily navigable set of exhibit rooms with informative videos, sprawling exhibit labels and portable audio devices which assist in leading them throughout the exhibition.

Each year, several new members are inducted in the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame through a small ceremony. Newly inducted members come from many different sports including: bowling, football, tennis, track and field, hangliding and horse racing, to name a few. A personal favorite, Duke Basketball’s head coach Mike Krzyzewski (the winningest college basketball coach of all time) has his own shrine within the hall of fame. A national championship winner with Duke in five different seasons, “Coach K” will forever go down as one of the state’s most famous and successful coaches.

Education & Public Schools

By Jay Buckley

The Department of Education was created in 1867. Since then, many things have changed to help benefit children in all communities throughout the United States. Laws have been passed to prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, and disability. Programs like Title I bring federal aid to schools in poor urban and rural areas. The assistance of these programs also benefits postsecondary education by providing financial aid programs for college students.

Education is one of the biggest tools for success. Unfortunately, some neighborhoods are unable to provide the same amount of support and money like other communities throughout the same district. The public should be more outraged by this because by funding these schools, they are ultimately investing in the future of our nation through our children.

Recently, there have been two individuals who are on opposing ends of public school spectrums. Betsy DeVos, who was nominated by President Trump as the Secretary of Education and Chancelor Bennett, better known as Chance the Rapper. DeVos and her children have never attainted public schools, while Chance is a product of the Chicago Public School system. Neither of them have a degree in education but they both have made very powerful stances about public schooling.

DeVos is an advocate for “school choice” meaning parents who are able to could send their children to private schools bringing along the money they would provide to the local public school. She believes in school vouchers which use public money to fund private, religious schools. Overall, she is dangerous to public school systems especially those in low income neighborhoods.

Chance believes “funding for public schools is the single most important investment a community can make.” He met with the Governor of Illinois to discuss funding for Chicago’s public schools. He has donated $1 million and raised $2.2 million in grant money. He also plans on hosting an awards show in 2018 for teachers, parents, principals, and students that convey leadership.

Taking away money from public schools fail to protect kids from increased segregation. The schools in low income neighborhoods already struggle with funding for the school system. It is clear that DeVos does not understand the role of the department or perhaps she does not take it seriously. After looking at the 2018 budget for Education, it is clear we need more people who are as passionate about the importance of funding public education as Chance the Rapper.

Battlefield Tour Guides

By Chris Colón

1200px-Gettysburg_entranceWhen I first became interested in history, I had realized that the reason I was so interested was the way in which my father would teach me about history. He made a great effort to teach me as if he were telling me a story. It was that storytelling aspect that made me want to study history in college. How can I make a career out of doing exactly what my father did with me, with other people?

One summer my family and I visited Gettysburg, PA. Upon our arrival at the national park, we stopped at the visitor center. Here we were given information on how to visit the park; Where to start, what to look at, where to go next. This was extremely helpful and allowed for a more through experience of the park. As we began to venture out on our own in the park, we passed many different groups of visitors; School field trips, bus tours, and large families.


Later on we came up to a small group of folks listening to a battlefield tour guide. We decided to stop and listen as well. Before we knew it we were following this group and their tour guide across the entire park. What struck me the most was the level of detail in which the tour guide would use to help visitors better understand the information. What was also quite inspiring was how this tour guide would have the group look at the landscape and encourage them to use their own imagination to see a visual representation of the information they were being given.

We reached the area on Big Round Top where the 20th Maine held their position during the 3rd day of the battle, and at that moment I realized what a pivotal role this battlefield tour guide had played in my experience at the park. When we arrived the tour guide gave us the historical context of the area we were standing in. “This was the end of the line”, he said. The tour guide told us of how important what happened there was to the overall outcome of the battle. Afterwards the tour guide told us to walk around and look at the landscape.

Gburg Tour Guide-11-thumb-1200x795-8868It was not only the fact of where my feet were standing that made for such an amazing experience. This tour guide had brought the entire environment to life for me through his ability to tell the story. I cannot say I would have had just as good of an experience if we were to have just hiked up there ourselves. The story was what allowed me to connect with the history. I was no longer listening to the information, I was feeling it and seeing it.

Experiencing what a good and dedicated battlefield tour guide can do for visitors was eye opening. My experience at the Gettysburg National Military Park was part of the reason I chose to study history. After my visit I was inspired to pursue a career in public history and hope to one day give someone the chance to experience history in the same way I did that day.

Hamilton Review

By Alex Larson

lin-manuel-miranda-hamiltonThere is so much that can be said about the Broadway show that is, “Hamilton”. It is a combination between Public History and Hip Hop in a sense, however, it is also much more… it is a story. A story that helped shape the future of the United States. I myself have never been one to get interested in theatrics and Broadway, but something about seeing part of this play in class the other day, realizing that it dealt with history and provided a different view in which to see that history, had me wanting to learn much more and actually give at least the songs a good listening through.

The story is, of course (as the title of the show suggests), the story of one Alexander Hamilton and how he overcame a terrible past. This past which consisted of being an orphan, having the ones close to him die whether by suicide like his cousin, or sickness like his mother, led this man to  having to break free, and break free he did. He had rose and grew from one of the worst down trodden childhoods a person had ever seen and developed into one of the founding fathers for the United States of America. This play also depicts Alexander’s downfall as well. It goes into depth about how Alexander lost himself and stepped out of the family picture. One track in particular called “The Reynold’s Pamphlet”, described the infidelity he caused, how it became too much for him, and why exactly he had to come clean with all the accusations he was facing. As if that was not enough, the musical continues with the depressive conclusion of the death of Alexander’s son and eventually his own death.

HamiltonRichard Rodgers Theatre
Hamilton Richard Rodgers Theatre Cast 

This play does not just focus on Alexander however. During the entirety of it, we are met by other figures in history. Many actors take on the roles of people that had an influential impact in the life of Alexander throughout his life. There are segments that involve Alexander’s closest friends Aaron Burr, John Laurens, Marquis de Lafayette, “The Schuyler Sisters”, and so much more. I think that giving the play different angles  in which to see from, thanks to these numerous characters really helps the audience make their own assumptions about what had happened and why.

This play was written and produced by Lin-Manuel Miranda, who also is the actor who portrays Alexander Hamilton within the show itself. Lin-Manuel did a phenomenal job, in my opinion, with the way in which this play was put together. It is one of the most interesting ways to learn about a completely new subject. I have never heard of Alexander Hamilton except for the basics on how he was a founding father and all his main escapades. But to combine his ENTIRE biography and a Broadway performance left me absolutely shocked. I do recommend this multi-award winning presentation to anyone that has the opportunity to see it or hear it.

To Teach or Not to Teach, That is the Question

By Morissa Robinson

teacher-clip-art-images-illustrations-photosAs a History major I am often asked, “What are you planning to do with that, teach?” The question is  usually followed by a self satisfied smirk and the occasional rolling of the eyes. I have to admit the first few times this happened, my feelings were hurt. I would mutter a quick “I’m not sure yet” and rush away with my head down. The question got old real quick. How dare these people make me feel ashamed of my decision? Why should I have to justify myself to them? It took me a little while to realize that I didn’t have to. The truth of the matter is YES, I want to teach. But I wanted to do that before I had even decided on History.

From the day I began kindergarten, I have always loved learning. I frequently tell my husband that if there was a way I could make money by being a professional student, I would sign up, no questions asked. Unfortunately, there isn’t or if there is, I haven’t found it yet. Teaching, I concluded, is the next best thing. Initially the goal was to teach English. My love of language and literature made English a natural choice. It also didn’t hurt that I really enjoy writing, both fiction and nonfiction. It was during my first semester at Horry Georgetown Tech that I began to think that maybe English wasn’t my only option. I had a history professor whose passion for the subject was second only to his excitement for it, and it was contagious. There wasn’t a single student who wasn’t hanging on to his every word when he lectured. I remember thinking ‘here’s a guy who genuinely loves what he’s doing.’920bf944987f52db7f7094d0c0df5d89

While most people tend to view history to be a tedious subject, I myself have always found it to be fascinating. Was it possible that I could do as my professor had done and get other people excited about it? Would I be able to inspire others to want to learn more? I decided that I wanted to teach history, but I want to do so much more than teach it. I want to make it fun, I want to bring it to life for students. I want them to see that it is so much more than learning events and dates.

History isn’t just another lesson, it is an experience. It’s seeing the dinosaur bones at the museum. It’s taking a ghost tour though the historic section of town. It’s about recording the stories of our grandparents to pass down to our grandchildren. It isn’t just about what happened when. It’s about why it happened, how could it have been different, what is the impact it still has today. It’s about shaping minds to see things differently, from someone else’s perspective. It’s taking what you know, adding what you learn, figuring out the hows and the whys and sharing that information with others. It’s about teaching students to use the past to navigate the issues we face today, to learn from past errors. Now when people ask ‘What do you plan to do with that, teach?’ I don’t hesitate. My reply? ‘Yes, my plan is to teach, but more than that, I plan to help shape the minds that will change our future by learning from the past.’


When the Moors Ruled Europe and Spain

By Broderick Daniel


I recently came across this article where the topic of discussion was geared toward the African Moorish influence that was present in Spain and Europe. The article begins discussing the African presence in Europe that had been lost in time for so many years. However, minimizing the importance of this era does not erase it as the article explains. many would consider the seven-century rule by the Africans to have helped bring Europe out of the dark ages. After the fall of the roman empire, there was no creation of civilization which lead to the dark ages lasting from (476-800 CE) leaving Europe vulnerable to invasion from other nations, thus African general Tarik ibn Ziad led his military into Europe to conquer the land. Ziad also attempted to take over southern France, but this attack failed forcing the Africans to fall back into Spain which they ruled for centuries as well.

ahlambraContrary to belief, African influence was not the only culture that influenced those who were in Spain and Europe, although a majority of the population was African at the time, African nations were not the only nations in Europe. There were often conflicts amongst the Africans and Arabs, this altered the stability of the region. The culprit of this rivalry was often racial prejudice.  One thing that I noticed about African rule, is that unlike other nations the African moors did not invade Europe to kill its citizens nor did they force religion, language, or dictate their overall lifestyle. However, the Moors did afford women of all races the freedom to practice all jobs and given human rights that were non-existent prior to the moors arriving in Europe. this tradition was influenced by the culture of ancient Africa.

broderickIn addition to granting women’s rights and human rights, the moors also influenced nations through culture, architecture, science and how to self-govern themselves from this teaching 17 universities were created in Europe and great prosperity was present in both Europe in Spain until 1492. In 1492, Europe had sustained itself enough to rebel and free themselves from African rule. the last general to be defeated was general Boabdil of Granada city which left 3.5 million blacks living in both Spain and Portugal and dispersed throughout Europe. With the Moors moved out, their influence was still present making room for the European renaissance further developing science and art in Europe.

On a personal note, I noticed in all of my schooling and throughout all the education that I have taken up until this point, I have never heard of the moors of Europe and Spain until I decided to do my own research in to African culture and their global influence and I must say that I was shocked into my findings that Africans ruled these nations for a consistent amount of time and that history is accessible but is not heavily focused on in school.


“The Moorish Civilization: when Blacks ruled Spain.” African History,

“Migration Period: European History.” Encyclopedia Britannica,

“What was Europe like under Moorish Rule.” Quora,

“The Moors who Conquered and Civilized W. Europe.” All Empires History Forums,

DIRT: Archaeology, Artifacts, Bones, and Organizations

By Bryan Maldonado

DIRT: Archaeology, Artifacts, Bones, and Organizations

Archaeology is the study of ancient and recent human remains or material like artifacts in order to get more information about the past culture and the way of life. Artifacts are more than just a rare or ancient object they also tell archaeologist a story or even the lifestyle of people or animals from back then. An Archaeologist can tell a lot from human remains; with intensive research on bones they can tell what a person died from, disease they could have carried, or if the body received any damage.

How does archaeology relate to Public History?

Public History is very broad but to me it means teaching people about History without them even knowing they are learning History mainly because the teaching is done outside of specialized academic learning centers. Public Historians preserve artifacts just how archaeologist do both fields are finding new discoveries and informing the public about it one way or another. An example on how History and Archaeology relate are Historical houses. Some Historical House have been preserved to be studied and showed to the public but the interesting part is that artifacts have been found in these homes and archaeologist are usually on the scene to learn more about things that are found in these Ancient treasure homes full of information.historic house

Recent Discoveries

There are always new discoveries due to findings on remains of bones and artifacts. Just today on November 15, 2017 archaeologist have believed to found cremated bones of Buddha in a 1000 year old chest in China. They also found 260 Buddhist statues and a structure that could be from the now lost Manjusri Hall, according to LiveScience. Most of these statues found will be most likely be put in a museum after intensive research has been done in my opinion.

Another interesting discovery is that in  southwestern Germany last year archaeologist uncovered two teeth where the Rhine River use to flow that date back to 9.7 million years ago that could re-write human history. The team recently made their findings public because they had to do the research to make sure they are correct on their findings.  According to professor Lutz the teeth found will be up for exhibition in the Lands Museum in Mainz.


There are many organizations and groups of people that realized that all these rare things need to be preserved so that future generations can learn from. One of the more popular regulations so that people do not just destroy these artifacts are those of NAGPRA. Which protects native American and Hawaiian cultural items, humans remans an sacred objects here in the United States of America. The government has also passed a law known as Section 106 that is designed to assist federal agencies in making effective management decision about archaeological resources and findings. About 90 percent of archaeological excavations done in the United States of America are done according to Section 106 of the NHPA.


McDonald, Carol , et al. “ Public Archaeology is….” Saa.oprg, Public Archaeology is….

Borrud, Gabriel, and Deutsche Welle. “9.7-Million-Year-Old teeth discovery in Germany could re-Write human history.”,

Godden, Maryse . “ENLIGHTENING Buddha’s cremated bones may have been discovered in this 1,000-Year-Old chest in China.” Https://,

Click to access ACHP%20ARCHAEOLOGY%20GUIDANCE.pdf